Circuit Says Public Defender Can Be Sued
The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals put public defender offices on a liability hot seat Monday by reinstating the case of a convicted murderer who said his lawyer's ineffective assistance violated his civil rights.
In siding with Roberto Miranda, a man who spent 14 years on Nevada's death row, an en banc panel sent a strong signal that counties risk hefty civil judgments if they don't adequately fund public defender's offices.
"This decision should be brought to every government official who has some impact and decision-making power over public defender budgets," said San Francisco Public Defender Jeff Adachi.
The court voted 7-4 to reinstate Miranda's lawsuit against the Clark County public defender. He blamed his prison stay on an inexperienced prosecutor and office spending policies. After his conviction was tossed out on appeal, he sued his former lawyer, the public defender and Clark County. The district court said the claims were baseless, and a three-judge 9th Circuit panel agreed.
Ninth Circuit Chief Judge Mary Schroeder, writing for the majority, affirmed the dismissal of the claims against Miranda's lawyer, who was trying his first murder case. The man acted as Miranda's lawyer, not as an agent of the state -- even though, Schroeder wrote, he "did essentially nothing." She distinguished between a lawyer making independent decisions on behalf of a client and decisions based on an office's allocation of resources.
But former Clark County Public Defender Morgan Harris was an agent of the state, the court ruled, so those claims were reinstated. Harris used polygraph tests to help determine how much money and time to spend on clients, and Miranda failed his.
Judges Andrew Kleinfeld and Barry Silverman wrote separate dissents from the reinstatement of claims against Harris. However, Silverman and fellow dissenters Joseph Sneed and Thomas Nelson voted to reinstate the claims against Clark County itself, making the vote on that claim 10-1.
"The county doesn't have anything to do with assigning work to public defenders and doesn't have anything to do with training or licensing lawyers," Kleinfeld wrote in Miranda v. Clark County, 03 C.D.O.S. 1037. That is up to law schools, he explained.
One of Miranda's Wyoming lawyers, Spence, Moriarity & Shockey partner J. Douglas McCalla, said lawyers aren't ready to try murder cases out of law school without additional training.
"When you get out of law school, you don't know where to file a case, much less defend capital cases," McCalla said.
Based on the tip of a man Miranda's lawyers believe was the real killer in the 1981 stabbing, the 59-year-old Cuban immigrant was tried and sent to death row despite providing a list of dozens of witnesses, most of whom were never interviewed. He was released 14 years later when a Nevada judge ruled his lawyer was ineffective. He was never retried.
Miranda has an ongoing civil rights lawsuit against two Las Vegas police officers who worked on his case. Both McCalla and his associate, Larissa Ferullo, didn't think Monday's decision would lead to an outbreak of civil rights claims against public defenders.
"I don't think it's going to open ineffective assistance floodgates. ... I don't think it's going to affect every little thing," Ferullo said.
AFRA thinks this SHOULD "open the floodgates", especially when CA's apparently work on behalf of CPS, not parents. Here's some choice tools-
Competent Counsel Cites
THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BE A PARENT
The Problem with Plea Bargaining
Contract for Court Appointed Attorney
QUESTIONS EVERY DEFENDANT MUST ASK BEFORE SELECTING A COURT APPOINTED ATTORNEY
Things to advise your attorney in writing:
To Lawyer: Instructions of things to be done
Definition of Due Process - (Someone tell the judges)
The Public Defender Creed"I am a public defender. I am the guardian of the presumption of innocence, due process, and fair trial. To me is entrusted the preservation of those sacred principles. I will promulgate them with courtesy and respect but not with obsequiousness and not with fear for I am partisan; I am counsel for the defense. Let none who oppose me forget that with every fiber of my being I will fight for my clients. My clients are the indigent accused. They are the lonely, the friendless. There is no one to speak for them but me. My voice will be raised in their defense. I will resolve all doubt in their favor. This will be my credo; this and the Golden Rule. I will seek acclaim and approval only from my own conscience. And if upon my death there are a few lonely people who have benefited, my efforts will not have been in vain."
-- Jim Dougherty, Cook County, KY Public
Sounds good, doesn't it? Maybe now, they will get SERIOUS about it.